Jakarta untuk Semua

Tulisan Agus Harimurti Yudhoyono (AHY) di Koran Sindo, hari ini, Kamis (22/6). (instagram AHY)

Oleh: Agus Harimurti Yudhoyono*)

Menjelang ulang tahun Jakarta ke-490, saya membuka-buka kembali catatan lama saat mengikuti Pilkada DKI Jakarta. Saya ingat ada banyak masukan dan permintaan dari masyarakat.

Salah satunya dari Ibu Gri, yang menyelipkan secarik kertas lusuh ke tangan saya. Ia menulis: “Saya seorang Ibu, Pak, punya dua anak. Suami saya tidak mempunyai pekerjaan tetap, kadang kerja, kadang tidak. Bantu kami dan anak-anak kami, Pak. Beri kami pekerjaan Pak. Tuhan akan mengangkat derajat Bapak.”

Saya tercenung membaca kembali surat ini.

Di balik gedung-gedung tinggi, gegap gempita, dan gemerlapnya ibu-kota, Jakarta menyimpan wajah-wajah kemiskinan, ketimpangan,dan ketidakadilan. Sebenarnya tidak sulit bagi kita untuk dapat memotret langsung kehidupan warga, yang tidak selalu muncul di televisi, surat kabar, maupun media sosial. Yang saya maksud adalah kehidupan warga yang lemah, namun tak pemah lelah untuk terus bertahan di kota ini, apa pun risikonya. Permasalahannya, jumlah mereka tidak sedikit, dan terus bertambah setiap harinya.

Ada sekitar 2,7 juta warga yang masih berpenghasilan di bawah upah minimum provinsi DKI Jakarta. Sementara sekitar 384.000 warga hidup di bawah garis kemiskinan, di mana mereka harus bertahan hidup dengan sekitar 510.000 rupiah per bulan. Mereka sering kelaparan dan kesulitan untuk memenuhi kebutuhan dasar sehari-hari lainnya.

Ketimpangan ekonomi juga menjadi masalah yang pelik di Jakarta. Jurang antara golongan kaya dan miskin cukup dalam. Dengan rasio gini 0.41, tingkat ketimpangan di Jakarta termasuk yang buruk dibandingkan dengan provinsi lainnya di Indonesia.

Selain itu, di sana-sini warga Jakarta merasa belum memperoleh keadilan sebagaimana mestinya. Para pedagang kecil misalnya, kesulitan mengembangkan usahanya karena tidak memiliki akses terhadap modal dan tempat usaha. Di bidang hukum, cukup banyak warga yang sulit mendapatkan bantuan hukum, termasuk dalam berbagai kasus penggusuran.

Seperti yang dialami kota metropolitan lainnya di dunia, di Jakarta terjadi mismatch antara besarnya jumlah penduduk dengan kemampuan kota mendukung seluruh warga untuk hidup layak. Jakarta dari awal tidak didesain untuk mengakomodasi 10 juta orang. Area lahan hunian yang semakin sempit, serta sumber daya alam yang semakin menipis, menjadikan kompetisi hidup di Jakarta semakin sengit. Terlebih dalam rimba globalisasi, biasanya yang kuat akan menang, sedangkan yang modalnya pas-pasan akan kalah, dan seringkali kalah telak.

Menariknya, realitas di atas ditambah dengan persoalan lingkungan dan sosial, seperti hunian kumuh, banjir, sampah, polusi, kemacetan lalu lintas, dan kriminalitas, tidak kemudian membendung laju pertumbuhan penduduk dan urbanisasi.

Hari ini di Jakarta terdapat kekurangan hunian atau backlog sejumlah 300.000 unit. Kemacetan lalu lintas juga semakin menjadi-jadi. Kecepatan tempuh rata-rata kendaraan dari satu titik ke titik lainnya sekitar 20 km per jam. Angka di atas akan semakin buruk apabila tidak segera diatasi.

***

Sulit untuk menyalahkan urbanisasi, apalagi menghentikannya. Urbanisasi adalah sebuah proses alamiah yang juga terjadi di seluruh belahan dunia. Ini diyakini karena ibukota menjadi pusat dari segala aktivitas ekonomi yang menawarkan berbagai peluang. Hampir 70 persen perputaran uang di Indonesia terjadi di Jakarta. Di samping itu, Jakarta juga kerap menampilkan potret kekuasaan, kemewahan, dan prestise yang menggoda siapa pun. Itu semua alasan mengapa Jakarta terus menjadi magnet kuat di negeri ini.

Urbanisasi dari seluruh penjuru Nusantara meniscayakan terbentuknya masyarakat Jakarta yang sangat heterogen, baik agama, etnis, asal daerah, maupun status ekonomi. Kita pahami bahwa kemajemukan menghadirkan kekuatan sekaligus kerawanan tersendiri.

Kemajemukan, jika dikelola dengan baik, akan melahirkan energi dan ide-ide besar untuk kemajuan dan kesejahteraan bersama. Sebaliknya, kemajemukan bisa menjadi sumber malapetaka ketika perbedaan dijadikan sebagai tembok pemisah antar kelompok.

Oleh karena itu dibutuhkan kepemimpinan yang mengayomi semua, yang mampu merajut segala keberagaman, serta mampu mempersatukan rakyat tanpa menjadikannya homogen.

Persatuan dan kerukunan antar warga di Jakarta merupakan hal fundamental bagi terciptanya stabilitas politik, ekonomi, sosial, dan keamanan. Itu semua menjadi barometer bagi wilayah-wilayah lainnya di Indonesia. “Panas” di Jakarta, hampir pasti “panas” juga di daerah lainnya.

***

Semua warga Jakarta memiliki hak yang sama, termasuk hak untuk punya mimpi besar, hidup layak, serta kesempatan bekerja guna meningkatkan derajat hidup. Selain itu, kita semua punya hak untuk mengekspresikan kebebasan, serta hak untuk diperlakukan secara adil dan manusiawi.

Tapi tentunya setiap hak selalu diikuti dengan kewajiban. Pertama, mentaati segala hukum yang berlaku. Di negeri ini, di kota ini, panglimanya adalah hukum; hukum yang ditegakkan secara konsisten, dan tidak tebang pilih. Dalam hal ini, setiap pengemban amanat rakyat sepatutnya menjadi yang terdepan, dan mampu menjadi contoh yang baik.

Kedua, di alam demokrasi yang serba digital dewasa ini, sering kita melihat ekspresi kebebasan individu di luar batas kepatutan. Ini menimbulkan polemik dan konflik di ruang-ruang publik. Tidak ada larangan untuk mengungkapkan perbedaan pendapat, termasuk dalam sikap dan pilihan politik. Namun kita harus mampu menahan diri dari praktik-praktik menebar amarah, kebencian, dan permusuhan yang hanya akan memecah belah sesama anak bangsa.

Ketiga, kalau ingin hidup lebih baik di Jakarta, tanamkan disiplin dan tanggung jawab sejak dini. Awali dari yang paling sederhana, seperti disiplin membuang sampah dan tertib berlalu lintas. Selanjutnya, mari kita terus berkontribusi secara positif untuk kemajuan Jakarta, melalui pemikiran dan aksi nyata. Jadilah bagian dari solusi, bukan masalah. Apayang kita lakukan dan tidak kita lakukan hari ini akan menentukan nasib Jakarta dan anak cucu kita di masa depan.

Memang tidak mudah memimpin dan mengelola Jakarta yang begitu kompleks. Untuk itu, saya ucapkan terima kasih kepada semua pemimpin yang telah bekerja keras membangun Jakarta selama ini. Diiringi doa, saya juga ucapkan selamat kepada pemimpin baru Jakarta. Kutitipkan cita-cita besarku untuk Jakarta yang sama-sama kita cintai.

Selamat ulang tahun, Jakarta. Semoga menjadi rumah yang semakin maju, aman, adil, bermartabat, dan sejahtera untuk kita semua.

*)Direktur Eksekutif The Yudhoyono Institute

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